name: sexual reproduction
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def: "A reproduction process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two gametes, which may come from two organisms or from a single organism, in the case of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, e.g. C. elegans, or self-fertilization in plants. It occurs both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes: in multicellular eukaryotic organisms, an individual is created anew; in prokaryotes, the initial cell has additional or transformed genetic material. In a process called genetic recombination, genetic material (DNA) originating from two gametes join up so that homologous sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information. After the new recombinant chromosome is formed, it is passed on to progeny." [GOC:jl, GOC:kmv, GOC:krc, GOC:tb, ISBN:0387520546, Wikipedia:Sexual_reproduction]
comment: Sexual reproduction may be seen as the regular alternation, in the life cycle of haplontic, diplontic and diplohaplontic organisms, of meiosis and fertilization which provides for the production offspring. In diplontic organisms there is a life cycle in which the products of meiosis behave directly as gametes, fusing to form a zygote from which the diploid, or sexually reproductive polyploid, adult organism will develop. In diplohaplontic organisms a haploid phase (gametophyte) exists in the life cycle between meiosis and fertilization (e.g. higher plants, many algae and Fungi); the products of meiosis are spores that develop as haploid individuals from which haploid gametes develop to form a diploid zygote; diplohaplontic organisms show an alternation of haploid and diploid generations. In haplontic organisms meiosis occurs in the zygote, giving rise to four haploid cells (e.g. many algae and protozoa), only the zygote is diploid and this may form a resistant spore, tiding organisms over hard times.
is_a: GO:0000003 ! reproduction
is_a: GO:0044703 ! multi-organism reproductive process
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