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Funk, V, Kositsup, B, Zhao, C and Beers, EP (2002) The Arabidopsis xylem peptidase XCP1 is a tracheary element vacuolar protein that may be a papain ortholog. Plant Physiol. 128:84-94
XCP1 is a xylem-specific papain-like cysteine peptidase in Arabidopsis. To determine whether XCP1 could be involved in tracheary element autolysis, promoter activity and localization of XCP1 were investigated using XCP1 promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusions and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. A tracheary element expression pattern was detected for XCP1. Results from confocal microscopy and biochemical subcellular fractionation indicated that XCP1 was localized in the vacuole. Ectopic expression of XCP1 resulted in a reduction in plant size in some lines and early leaf senescence, as indicated by early loss of leaf chlorophyll. Reduced plant size was correlated with higher levels of XCP1, as shown by immunoblot and peptidase activity gel analyses. The XCP1 prodomain exhibits exceptionally high similarity (greater than 80%) to the prodomains of papain and other papain-like enzymes isolated from papaya (Carica papaya) laticifers when compared with all other reported papain-like enzymes. The potential for XCP1 and papain to perform common functions as catalysts of autolytic processing following cell death due to programmed suicide or to wounding is discussed.
Arabidopsis/enzymology; Arabidopsis/genetics; Arabidopsis/growth & development; Chlorophyll/metabolism; Cloning, Molecular; Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics; Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism; Glucuronidase/genetics; Glucuronidase/metabolism; Immunoblotting; Isoenzymes/genetics; Isoenzymes/metabolism; Malate Dehydrogenase/metabolism; Mannosidases/metabolism; Microscopy, Confocal; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Molecular Sequence Data; Papain/metabolism; Plant Structures/enzymology; Plant Structures/genetics; Plant Structures/growth & development; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics; Protoplasts/metabolism; Vacuoles/enzymology; alpha-Mannosidase
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