It is now the 5th OPEN Period for CACAO Fall 2017! It will end on Monday November 20, 2017 at 11:59 pm CST
This is your chance to make annotations OR challenge other team's annotations. You may also DEFEND or suggest improvements to your own annotations IF they have been challenged. Please note, although we ENCOURAGE challenges, an excess of identical challenges that do not appear to be applicable to the annotation or well thought out will be considered spam and ignored.

Have any questions? Please email us at

Gene pages

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the intercollegiate annotation competition!
The Community Assessment of Community Annotation with Ontologies (CACAO) is a competition for teams of undergrads around the world to improve the functional annotation of genes. CACAO was developed and is currently run at Texas A&M University, along with many other institutions. If you are interested in participating, please email us -

This page is to help CACAO students select the correct gene and gene page to use for their annotations. Annotations are entered on gene pages created by the GONUTS Gene pagemaker. Annotations can be made to any UniProt record, which includes both curated SwissProt and uncurated TrEMBL entries (See UniProtKB FAQ7.

Use SwissProt entries where you can

If there are multiple entries that are equally valid, use the SwissProt entry. In the case shown in the figure, there are entries that specify the strain of Azotobacter vinlandii and a more generic entry. Checking the NCBI taxonomy, we can see that the SwissProt entry is at a higher taxonomic level than the TrEmbl entries. Although the SwissProt entry is for a specific reference genome that may not be the same as the one used in your paper,

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries are tagged with a yellow star. UniProtKB/TrEMBL entries are tagged with a grey star

Multiple UniProt entries

In other cases there are multiple SwissProt and/or TrEMBL entries for different strains.

Multiple UniProt entries from different strains