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Tinel, A, Janssens, S, Lippens, S, Cuenin, S, Logette, E, Jaccard, B, Quadroni, M and Tschopp, J (2007) Autoproteolysis of PIDD marks the bifurcation between pro-death caspase-2 and pro-survival NF-kappaB pathway. EMBO J. 26:197-208
Upon DNA damage, a complex called the PIDDosome is formed and either signals NF-kappaB activation and thus cell survival or alternatively triggers caspase-2 activation and apoptosis. PIDD (p53-induced protein with a death domain) is constitutively processed giving rise to a 48-kDa N-terminal fragment containing the leucine-rich repeats (LRRs, PIDD-N) and a 51-kDa C-terminal fragment containing the death domain (DD, PIDD-C). The latter undergoes further cleavage resulting in a 37-kDa fragment (PIDD-CC). Here we show that processing occurs at S446 (generating PIDD-C) and S588 (generating PIDD-CC) by an auto-processing mechanism similar to that found in the nuclear pore protein Nup98/96 and inteins. Auto-cleavage of PIDD determines the outcome of the downstream signaling events. Whereas initially formed PIDD-C mediates the activation of NF-kappaB via the recruitment of RIP1 and NEMO, subsequent formation of PIDD-CC causes caspase-2 activation and thus cell death. A non-cleavable PIDD mutant is unable to translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and loses both activities. In this way, auto-proteolysis of PIDD might participate in the orchestration of the DNA damage-induced life and death signaling pathways.
Amino Acid Sequence; Apoptosis; Carrier Proteins/chemistry; Carrier Proteins/physiology; Caspase 2/chemistry; Caspase 2/metabolism; Cell Nucleus/metabolism; Cytoplasm/metabolism; DNA Damage; Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins; Enzyme Activation; HeLa Cells; Humans; Models, Biological; Molecular Sequence Data; Mutation; NF-kappa B/chemistry; NF-kappa B/metabolism; Signal Transduction