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PMID:23563485

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Citation

Srikantha, T, Daniels, KJ, Pujol, C, Kim, E and Soll, DR (2013) Identification of genes upregulated by the transcription factor Bcr1 that are involved in impermeability, impenetrability, and drug resistance of Candida albicans a/α biofilms. Eukaryotic Cell 12:875-88

Abstract

Candida albicans forms two types of biofilm, depending upon the configuration of the mating type locus. Although architecturally similar, a/α biofilms are impermeable, impenetrable, and drug resistant, whereas a/a and α/α biofilms lack these traits. The difference appears to be the result of an alternative matrix. Overexpression in a/a cells of BCR1, a master regulator of the a/α matrix, conferred impermeability, impenetrability, and drug resistance to a/a biofilms. Deletion of BCR1 in a/α cells resulted in the loss of these a/α-specific biofilm traits. Using BCR1 overexpression in a/a cells, we screened 107 genes of interest and identified 8 that were upregulated by Bcr1. When each was overexpressed in a/a biofilms, the three a/α traits were partially conferred, and when each was deleted in a/α cells, the traits were partially lost. Five of the eight genes have been implicated in iron homeostasis, and six encode proteins that are either in the wall or plasma membrane or secreted. All six possess sites for O-linked and N-linked glycosylation that, like glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors, can cross-link to the wall and matrix, suggesting that they may exert a structural role in conferring impermeability, impenetrability, and drug resistance, in addition to their physiological functions. The fact that in a screen of 107 genes, all 8 of the Bcr1-upregulated genes identified play a role in impermeability, impenetrability, and drug resistance suggests that the formation of the a/α matrix is highly complex and involves a larger number of genes than the initial ones identified here.

Links

PubMed PMC3675989 Online version:10.1128/EC.00071-13

Keywords

Antifungal Agents/pharmacology; Biofilms/drug effects; Biofilms/growth & development; Candida albicans/drug effects; Candida albicans/genetics; Candida albicans/metabolism; Cell Membrane/drug effects; Cell Membrane/genetics; Cell Membrane/metabolism; Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects; Cells, Cultured; Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics; Fluconazole/pharmacology; Fungal Proteins/genetics; Fungal Proteins/metabolism; Gene Deletion; Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal; Genes, Regulator; Humans; Leukocytes, Mononuclear/microbiology; Transcription Factors/deficiency; Transcription Factors/genetics; Transcription, Genetic

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

CANAL:A0A1D8PHF8

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0044011: single-species biofilm formation on inanimate substrate

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CANAL:CSA1

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0044011: single-species biofilm formation on inanimate substrate

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CANAL:RBT5

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0044011: single-species biofilm formation on inanimate substrate

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CANAL:RBT5

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0043709: cell adhesion involved in single-species biofilm formation

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CANAL:PGA7

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0044011: single-species biofilm formation on inanimate substrate

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CANAL:CSA2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0044011: single-species biofilm formation on inanimate substrate

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CANAL:Q5A1Z4

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0044011: single-species biofilm formation on inanimate substrate

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CANAL:BCR1

involved_in

GO:1900231: regulation of single-species biofilm formation on inanimate substrate

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

Notes

See also

References

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