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PMID:22635115

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Citation

Lü, S, Zhao, H, Des Marais, DL, Parsons, EP, Wen, X, Xu, X, Bangarusamy, DK, Wang, G, Rowland, O, Juenger, T, Bressan, RA and Jenks, MA (2012) Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM9 involvement in cuticle formation and maintenance of plant water status. Plant Physiol. 159:930-44

Abstract

Mutation of the ECERIFERUM9 (CER9) gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) causes elevated amounts of 18-carbon-length cutin monomers and a dramatic shift in the cuticular wax profile (especially on leaves) toward the very-long-chain free fatty acids tetracosanoic acid (C₂₄) and hexacosanoic acid (C₂₆). Relative to the wild type, cer9 mutants exhibit elevated cuticle membrane thickness over epidermal cells and cuticular ledges with increased occlusion of the stomatal pore. The cuticular phenotypes of cer9 are associated with delayed onset of wilting in plants experiencing water deficit, lower transpiration rates, and improved water use efficiency measured as carbon isotope discrimination. The CER9 protein thus encodes a novel determinant of plant drought tolerance-associated traits, one whose deficiency elevates cutin synthesis, redistributes wax composition, and suppresses transpiration. Map-based cloning identified CER9, and sequence analysis predicted that it encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase homologous to yeast Doa10 (previously shown to target endoplasmic reticulum proteins for proteasomal degradation). To further elucidate CER9 function, the impact of CER9 deficiency on interactions with other genes was examined using double mutant and transcriptome analyses. For both wax and cutin, cer9 showed mostly additive effects with cer6, long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase1 (lacs1), and lacs2 and revealed its role in early steps of both wax and cutin synthetic pathways. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the cer9 mutation affected diverse cellular processes, with primary impact on genes associated with diverse stress responses. The discovery of CER9 lays new groundwork for developing novel cuticle-based strategies for improving the drought tolerance and water use efficiency of crop plants.

Links

PubMed PMC3387718 Online version:10.1104/pp.112.198697

Keywords


Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

ARATH:SUD1

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0010345: suberin biosynthetic process

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:SUD1

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0010143: cutin biosynthetic process

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:SUD1

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0010025: wax biosynthetic process

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:SUD1

GO:0042335: cuticle development

ECO:0000315:

P

Figure 3 shows that cer9 mutants have different cuticle compositions than wild type cuticles.

complete
CACAO 5395

ARATH:SUD1

involved_in

GO:0010025: wax biosynthetic process

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:SUD1

involved_in

GO:0010345: suberin biosynthetic process

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:SUD1

involved_in

GO:0010143: cutin biosynthetic process

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:SUD1

involved_in

GO:0042335: cuticle development

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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