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PMID:22529749

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Citation

Liu, L, Liu, C, Hou, X, Xi, W, Shen, L, Tao, Z, Wang, Y and Yu, H (2012) FTIP1 is an essential regulator required for florigen transport. PLoS Biol. 10:e1001313

Abstract

The capacity to respond to day length, photoperiodism, is crucial for flowering plants to adapt to seasonal change. The photoperiodic control of flowering in plants is mediated by a long-distance mobile floral stimulus called florigen that moves from leaves to the shoot apex. Although the proteins encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis and its orthologs in other plants are identified as the long-sought florigen, whether their transport is a simple diffusion process or under regulation remains elusive. Here we show that an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein, FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1), is an essential regulator required for FT protein transport in Arabidopsis. Loss of function of FTIP1 exhibits late flowering under long days, which is partly due to the compromised FT movement to the shoot apex. FTIP1 and FT share similar mRNA expression patterns and subcellular localization, and they interact specifically in phloem companion cells. FTIP1 is required for FT export from companion cells to sieve elements, thus affecting FT transport through the phloem to the SAM. Our results provide a mechanistic understanding of florigen transport, demonstrating that FT moves in a regulated manner and that FTIP1 mediates FT transport to induce flowering.

Links

PubMed PMC3328448 Online version:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001313

Keywords

Arabidopsis/genetics; Arabidopsis/metabolism; Arabidopsis/physiology; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics; Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism; Arabidopsis Proteins/physiology; Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism; Feedback, Physiological; Florigen/metabolism; Gene Expression; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant; Inflorescence/genetics; Inflorescence/metabolism; Inflorescence/physiology; Membrane Proteins/genetics; Membrane Proteins/metabolism; Membrane Proteins/physiology; Phloem/cytology; Phloem/metabolism; Plants, Genetically Modified; Protein Stability; Protein Transport; RNA Stability; RNA, Messenger/genetics; RNA, Messenger/metabolism

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

ARATH:FTIP1

located_in

GO:0005783: endoplasmic reticulum

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:FTIP1

located_in

GO:0009511: plasmodesmatal endoplasmic reticulum

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:FTIP1

involved_in

GO:0009911: positive regulation of flower development

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:Q9SXZ2

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:FTIP1

involved_in

GO:0010228: vegetative to reproductive phase transition of meristem

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:Q9SXZ2

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:FTIP1

enables

GO:0005515: protein binding

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:Q9SXZ2

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:FTIP1

located_in

GO:0009506: plasmodesma

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:FTIP1

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0048574: long-day photoperiodism, flowering

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:FTIP1

enables

GO:0005515: protein binding

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

AGI_LocusCode:AT1G65480

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:FT

enables

GO:0005515: protein binding

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:Q9FL59

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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