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PMID:22021414

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Citation

Yoo, KS, Ok, SH, Jeong, BC, Jung, KW, Cui, MH, Hyoung, S, Lee, MR, Song, HK and Shin, JS (2011) Single cystathionine β-synthase domain-containing proteins modulate development by regulating the thioredoxin system in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 23:3577-94

Abstract

Plant thioredoxins (Trxs) participate in two redox systems found in different cellular compartments: the NADP-Trx system (NTS) in the cytosol and mitochondria and the ferredoxin-Trx system (FTS) in the chloroplast, where they function as redox regulators by regulating the activity of various target enzymes. The identities of the master regulators that maintain cellular homeostasis and modulate timed development through redox regulating systems have remained completely unknown. Here, we show that proteins consisting of a single cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domain pair stabilize cellular redox homeostasis and modulate plant development via regulation of Trx systems by sensing changes in adenosine-containing ligands. We identified two CBS domain-containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana, CBSX1 and CBSX2, which are localized to the chloroplast, where they activate all four Trxs in the FTS. CBSX3 was found to regulate mitochondrial Trx members in the NTS. CBSX1 directly regulates Trxs and thereby controls H(2)O(2) levels and regulates lignin polymerization in the anther endothecium. It also affects plant growth by regulating photosynthesis-related [corrected] enzymes, such as malate dehydrogenase, via homeostatic regulation of Trxs. Based on our findings, we suggest that the CBSX proteins (or a CBS pair) are ubiquitous redox regulators that regulate Trxs in the FTS and NTS to modulate development and maintain homeostasis under conditions that are threatening to the cell.

Links

PubMed PMC3229136 Online version:10.1105/tpc.111.089847

Keywords

Arabidopsis/enzymology; Arabidopsis/genetics; Arabidopsis/growth & development; Arabidopsis/ultrastructure; Arabidopsis Proteins/chemistry; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics; Arabidopsis Proteins/isolation & purification; Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism; Chloroplasts/enzymology; Cotyledon/enzymology; Cystathionine beta-Synthase/chemistry; Cystathionine beta-Synthase/genetics; Cystathionine beta-Synthase/isolation & purification; Cystathionine beta-Synthase/metabolism; Flowers/enzymology; Flowers/ultrastructure; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant; Homeostasis; Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism; Lignin/metabolism; Models, Molecular; Molecular Sequence Data; Mutagenesis, Insertional; Oxidation-Reduction; Protein Structure, Secondary; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Structure-Activity Relationship; Thioredoxins/metabolism

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

ARATH:CBSX1

located_in

GO:0009507: chloroplast

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:CBSX1

involved_in

GO:0045454: cell redox homeostasis

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:CBSX2

involved_in

GO:0045454: cell redox homeostasis

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:CBSX3

involved_in

GO:0045454: cell redox homeostasis

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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