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PMID:21222654

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Citation

Templeton, GW, Nimick, M, Morrice, N, Campbell, D, Goudreault, M, Gingras, AC, Takemiya, A, Shimazaki, K and Moorhead, GB (2011) Identification and characterization of AtI-2, an Arabidopsis homologue of an ancient protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunit. Biochem. J. 435:73-83

Abstract

PP1 (protein phosphatase 1) is among the most conserved enzymes known, with one or more isoforms present in all sequenced eukaryotic genomes. PP1 dephosphorylates specific serine/threonine phosphoproteins as defined by associated regulatory or targeting subunits. In the present study we performed a PP1-binding screen to find putative PP1 interactors in Arabidopsis thaliana and uncovered a homologue of the ancient PP1 interactor, I-2 (inhibitor-2). Bioinformatic analysis revealed remarkable conservation of three regions of plant I-2 that play key roles in binding to PP1 and regulating its function. The sequence-related properties of plant I-2 were compared across eukaryotes, indicating a lack of I-2 in some species and the emergence points from key motifs during the evolution of this ancient regulator. Biochemical characterization of AtI-2 (Arabidopsis I-2) revealed its ability to inhibit all plant PP1 isoforms and inhibitory dependence requiring the primary interaction motif known as RVXF. Arabidopsis I-2 was shown to be a phosphoprotein in vivo that was enriched in the nucleus. TAP (tandem affinity purification)-tag experiments with plant I-2 showed in vivo association with several Arabidopsis PP1 isoforms and identified other potential I-2 binding proteins.

Links

PubMed Online version:10.1042/BJ20101035

Keywords

Amino Acid Sequence; Arabidopsis/genetics; Arabidopsis/metabolism; Arabidopsis Proteins/chemistry; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics; Arabidopsis Proteins/isolation & purification; Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism; Cell Line; Cell Nucleus/metabolism; Computational Biology/methods; Databases, Protein; Molecular Sequence Data; Phosphoproteins/chemistry; Phosphoproteins/genetics; Phosphoproteins/isolation & purification; Phosphoproteins/metabolism; Phylogeny; Plant Epidermis/cytology; Plant Epidermis/metabolism; Plant Leaves/cytology; Plant Leaves/metabolism; Plant Structures/metabolism; Protein Isoforms/genetics; Protein Isoforms/isolation & purification; Protein Isoforms/metabolism; Protein Phosphatase 1/chemistry; Protein Phosphatase 1/genetics; Protein Phosphatase 1/isolation & purification; Protein Phosphatase 1/metabolism; Protein Subunits/chemistry; Protein Subunits/genetics; Protein Subunits/isolation & purification; Protein Subunits/metabolism; Protein Transport; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism; Sequence Alignment; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

ARATH:F4KEU1

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0080163: regulation of protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:F4KEU1

located_in

GO:0005634: nucleus

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:F4KEU1

enables

GO:0004864: protein phosphatase inhibitor activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:PP18

enables

GO:0004722: protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:PP11

enables

GO:0004722: protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:PP12

enables

GO:0004722: protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:PP13

enables

GO:0004722: protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:PP14

enables

GO:0004722: protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:PP15

enables

GO:0004722: protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:PP16

enables

GO:0004722: protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:PP19

enables

GO:0004722: protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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