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PMID:21076413

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Citation

O'Rourke, SM, Christensen, SN and Bowerman, B (2010) Caenorhabditis elegans EFA-6 limits microtubule growth at the cell cortex. Nat. Cell Biol. 12:1235-41

Abstract

Microtubules are polymers of tubulin heterodimers that exhibit dynamic instability: periods of growth followed by periods of shrinkage. However, the molecular regulation of dynamic instability remains elusive. Here, we show that EFA-6, a cortically-localized protein, limits the growth of microtubules near the cell cortex of early embryonic cells from Caenorhabditis elegans, possibly by inducing microtubule catastrophes. Compared with wild type, embryos lacking EFA-6 had abnormally long and dense microtubules at the cell cortex, and growing microtubule plus ends resided at the cortex for up to five-fold longer. Loss of EFA-6 also caused excess centrosome separation and displacement towards the cell cortex early in mitosis, and subsequently a loss of anaphase spindle-pole oscillations and increased rates of spindle elongation. The centrosome separation phenotype was dependent on the motor protein dynein, suggesting a possible link between the modulation of microtubule dynamics at the cortex and dynein-dependent force production. EFA-6 orthologues activate ARF6-type GTPases to regulate vesicle trafficking. However, we show that only the C. elegans EFA-6 amino-terminus is both necessary and sufficient to limit microtubule growth along the cortex, and that this function is independent of ARF-6.

Links

PubMed PMC3236679 Online version:10.1038/ncb2128

Keywords

Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Caenorhabditis elegans/cytology; Caenorhabditis elegans/embryology; Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/metabolism; Centrosome/metabolism; Embryo, Nonmammalian/metabolism; Microtubules/metabolism; Molecular Sequence Data; Sequence Alignment

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

CAEEL:EFA6

involved_in

GO:0070507: regulation of microtubule cytoskeleton organization

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:EFA6

part_of

GO:0005938: cell cortex

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:EFA6

involved_in

GO:0046602: regulation of mitotic centrosome separation

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:EFA6

involved_in

GO:1902845: negative regulation of mitotic spindle elongation

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:EFA6

involved_in

GO:0007019: microtubule depolymerization

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:EFA6

involved_in

GO:0007077: mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:Q9XXA2

part_of

GO:0005938: cell cortex

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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