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PMID:20816678

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Citation

Ghosh, A, McBrayer, Z and O'Connor, MB (2010) The Drosophila gap gene giant regulates ecdysone production through specification of the PTTH-producing neurons. Dev. Biol. 347:271-8

Abstract

In Drosophila melanogaster, hypomorphic mutations in the gap gene giant (gt) have long been known to affect ecdysone titers resulting in developmental delay and the production of large (giant) larvae, pupae and adults. However, the mechanism by which gt regulates ecdysone production has remained elusive. Here we show that hypomorphic gt mutations lead to ecdysone deficiency and developmental delay by affecting the specification of the PG neurons that produce prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). The gt¹ hypomorphic mutation leads to random loss of PTTH production in one or more of the 4 PG neurons in the larval brain. In cases where PTTH production is lost in all four PG neurons, delayed development and giant larvae are produced. Since immunostaining shows no evidence for Gt expression in the PG neurons once PTTH production is detectable, it is unlikely that Gt directly regulates PTTH expression. Instead, we find that innervation of the prothoracic gland by the PG neurons is absent in gt hypomorphic larvae that do not express PTTH. In addition, PG neuron axon fasciculation is abnormal in many gt hypomorphic larvae. Since several other anteriorly expressed gap genes such as tailless and orthodenticle have previously been found to affect the fate of the cerebral labrum, a region of the brain that gives rise to the neuroendocrine cells that innervate the ring gland, we conclude that gt likely controls ecdysone production indirectly by contributing the peptidergic phenotype of the PTTH-producing neurons in the embryo.

Links

PubMed PMC2977998 Online version:10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.08.011

Keywords

Animals; Animals, Genetically Modified; Axons/metabolism; Axons/ultrastructure; Body Patterning/genetics; Drosophila Proteins/genetics; Drosophila Proteins/metabolism; Drosophila melanogaster/genetics; Drosophila melanogaster/growth & development; Drosophila melanogaster/metabolism; Ecdysone/biosynthesis; Female; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Genes, Insect; Insect Hormones/biosynthesis; Male; Models, Neurological; Mutation; Neurons/metabolism; Neurons/ultrastructure; Repressor Proteins/genetics; Repressor Proteins/metabolism; Signal Transduction

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

DROME:GIANT

involved_in

GO:0007411: axon guidance

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

DROME:GIANT

involved_in

GO:0008361: regulation of cell size

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

DROME:GIANT

involved_in

GO:0035271: ring gland development

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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