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PMID:20696843

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Citation

Liu, W, Watson, SS, Lan, Y, Keene, DR, Ovitt, CE, Liu, H, Schweitzer, R and Jiang, R (2010) The atypical homeodomain transcription factor Mohawk controls tendon morphogenesis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 30:4797-807

Abstract

The Mohawk homeobox (Mkx) gene encodes a new atypical homeodomain-containing protein with transcriptional repressor activity. Mkx mRNA exhibited dynamic expression patterns during development of the palate, somite, kidney, and testis, suggesting that it may be an important regulator of multiple developmental processes. To investigate the roles of Mkx in organogenesis, we generated mice carrying a null mutation in this gene. Mkx(-/-) mice survive postnatally and exhibit a unique wavy-tail phenotype. Close examination revealed that the mutant mice had smaller tendons than wild-type littermates and that the rapid postnatal growth of collagen fibrils in tendons was disrupted in Mkx(-/-) mice. Defects in tendon development were detected in the mutant mouse embryos as early as embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5). Although collagen fibril assembly initially appeared normal, the tendons of Mkx(-/-) embryos expressed significantly reduced amounts of collagen I, fibromodulin, and tenomodulin in comparison with control littermates. We found that Mkx mRNA was strongly expressed in differentiating tendon cells during embryogenesis and in the tendon sheath cells in postnatal stages. In addition to defects in tendon collagen fibrillogenesis, Mkx(-/-) mutant mice exhibited abnormal tendon sheaths. These results identify Mkx as an important regulator of tendon development.

Links

PubMed PMC2950547 Online version:10.1128/MCB.00207-10

Keywords

Animals; Base Sequence; DNA Primers/genetics; Female; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Gene Knockout Techniques; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics; Homeodomain Proteins/physiology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission; Morphogenesis/genetics; Morphogenesis/physiology; Phenotype; Pregnancy; RNA, Messenger/genetics; RNA, Messenger/metabolism; Tendons/abnormalities; Tendons/embryology; Tendons/growth & development

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

MOUSE:MKX

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0030199: collagen fibril organization

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

MGI:MGI:5287572

P

  • occurs_in:(EMAPA:16748)

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:MKX

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0010628: positive regulation of gene expression

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

MGI:MGI:5287572

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:MKX

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0002932: tendon sheath development

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

MGI:MGI:5287572

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:MKX

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0035992: tendon formation

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

MGI:MGI:5287572

P

  • results_in_formation_of:(EMAPA:35854)|results_in_formation_of:(EMAPA:16748)|results_in_formation_of:(EMAPA:35854)|results_in_formation_of:(EMAPA:16405)

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:MKX

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0035990: tendon cell differentiation

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

MGI:MGI:5287572

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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