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PMID:20488890

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Citation

Brock, AK, Willmann, R, Kolb, D, Grefen, L, Lajunen, HM, Bethke, G, Lee, J, Nürnberger, T and Gust, AA (2010) The Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase PP2C5 affects seed germination, stomatal aperture, and abscisic acid-inducible gene expression. Plant Physiol. 153:1098-111

Abstract

Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone regulating various cellular processes in plants, including stomatal opening and seed germination. Although protein phosphorylation via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) has been suggested to be important in ABA signaling, the corresponding phosphatases are largely unknown. Here, we show that a member of the Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), PP2C5, is acting as a MAPK phosphatase. The PP2C5 protein colocalizes and directly interacts with stress-induced MPK3, MPK4, and MPK6, predominantly in the nucleus. Importantly, altered PP2C5 levels affect MAPK activation. Whereas Arabidopsis plants depleted of PP2C5 show an enhanced ABA-induced activation of MPK3 and MPK6, ectopic expression of PP2C5 in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) resulted in the opposite effect, with the two MAPKs salicylic acid-induced protein kinase and wound-induced protein kinase not being activated any longer after ABA treatment. Moreover, depletion of PP2C5, whose gene expression itself is affected by ABA treatment, resulted in altered ABA responses. Loss-of-function mutation in PP2C5 or AP2C1, a close PP2C5 homolog, resulted in an increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions and a partial ABA-insensitive phenotype in seed germination that was most prominent in the pp2c5 ap2c1 double mutant line. In addition, the response of ABA-inducible genes such as ABI1, ABI2, RD29A, and Erd10 was reduced in the mutant plants. Thus, we suggest that PP2C5 acts as a MAPK phosphatase that positively regulates seed germination, stomatal closure, and ABA-inducible gene expression.

Links

PubMed PMC2899920 Online version:10.1104/pp.110.156109

Keywords

Abscisic Acid/pharmacology; Arabidopsis/drug effects; Arabidopsis/enzymology; Arabidopsis/genetics; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics; Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism; Cell Nucleus/drug effects; Cell Nucleus/enzymology; Enzyme Activation/drug effects; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/drug effects; Gene Knockout Techniques; Germination/drug effects; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases/genetics; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases/metabolism; Mutation/genetics; Plant Stomata/anatomy & histology; Plant Stomata/drug effects; Plant Stomata/genetics; Protein Binding/drug effects; Protein Transport/drug effects; Seeds/drug effects; Seeds/enzymology; Seeds/genetics; Seeds/growth & development; Stress, Physiological/drug effects; Stress, Physiological/genetics

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

ARATH:P2C25

located_in

GO:0009536: plastid

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:P2C25

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009738: abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:P2C30

located_in

GO:0005634: nucleus

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:P2C30

enables

GO:0004722: protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:P2C30

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009738: abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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