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PMID:19769959

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Citation

Zirzow, S, Lüdtke, TH, Brons, JF, Petry, M, Christoffels, VM and Kispert, A (2009) Expression and requirement of T-box transcription factors Tbx2 and Tbx3 during secondary palate development in the mouse. Dev. Biol. 336:145-55

Abstract

Formation of the mammalian secondary palate is a highly regulated and complex process. Impairment of the underlying cellular and molecular programs often results in cleft palate, a common birth defect in mammals. Here we report that Tbx2 and Tbx3, two closely related genes encoding T-box transcription factors, are expressed in the mesenchyme of the mouse palatal structures during development. Mice homozygous mutant for Tbx2 and mice double heterozygous for Tbx2 and Tbx3 exhibit a cleft palate phenotype arguing for an important contribution of Tbx2 and Tbx3 to palatogenesis. In Tbx2-deficient embryos, the bilateral primordial palatal shelves form but are smaller and retarded in the outgrowth process. They do not make contact but retain the potential to fuse. Development of other craniofacial structures appears normal, suggesting that impaired palate formation in Tbx2-mutant mice is caused by a primary defect in the palatal shelf mesenchyme. This is further supported by increased cell proliferation and apoptosis accompanied by increased expression of Bmp4 and CyclinD1 in Tbx2-deficient palatal shelves. Hence, Tbx2 and Tbx3 function overlappingly to control growth of the palatal shelf mesenchyme.

Links

PubMed Online version:10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.09.020

Keywords

Animals; Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4/genetics; Cyclin D1/genetics; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; In Situ Hybridization; Mice; Mice, Knockout; Palate/embryology; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; T-Box Domain Proteins/genetics; T-Box Domain Proteins/physiology

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

MOUSE:TBX3

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0060021: roof of mouth development

ECO:0000316: genetic interaction evidence used in manual assertion

MGI:MGI:98494

P

  • results_in_development_of:(EMAPA:18948)

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:TBX2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0060560: developmental growth involved in morphogenesis

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

MGI:MGI:4415614

P

  • occurs_in:(EMAPA:17932)

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:TBX2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0060021: roof of mouth development

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

MGI:MGI:4415614

P

  • results_in_development_of:(EMAPA:17932)

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:TBX2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0060021: roof of mouth development

ECO:0000316: genetic interaction evidence used in manual assertion

MGI:MGI:98495

P

  • results_in_development_of:(EMAPA:18948)

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:TBX2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0060021: roof of mouth development

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

MGI:MGI:4415614

P

results_in_development_of:(EMAPA:17932)

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:TBX2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0060021: roof of mouth development

ECO:0000316: genetic interaction evidence used in manual assertion

MGI:MGI:98495

P

results_in_development_of:(EMAPA:18948)

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:TBX2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0060560: developmental growth involved in morphogenesis

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

MGI:MGI:4415614

P

occurs_in:(EMAPA:17932)

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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