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PMID:19304937

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Citation

Kandasamy, MK, McKinney, EC and Meagher, RB (2009) A single vegetative actin isovariant overexpressed under the control of multiple regulatory sequences is sufficient for normal Arabidopsis development. Plant Cell 21:701-18

Abstract

The relative significance of gene regulation and protein isovariant differences remains unexplored for most gene families, particularly those participating in multicellular development. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes three vegetative actins, ACT2, ACT7, and ACT8, in two ancient and highly divergent subclasses. Mutations in any of these differentially expressed actins revealed only mild phenotypes. However, double mutants were extremely dwarfed, with altered cell and organ morphology and an aberrant F-actin cytoskeleton (e.g., act2-1 act7-4 and act8-2 act7-4) or totally root-hairless (e.g., act2-1 act8-2). Our studies suggest that the three vegetative actin genes and protein isovariants play distinct subclass-specific roles during plant morphogenesis. For example, during root development, ACT7 was involved in root growth, epidermal cell specification, cell division, and root architecture, and ACT2 and ACT8 were essential for root hair tip growth. Also, genetic complementation revealed that the ACT2 and ACT8 isovariants, but not ACT7, fully rescued the root hair growth defects of single and double mutants. Moreover, we synthesized fully normal plants overexpressing the ACT8 isovariant from multiple actin regulatory sequences as the only vegetative actin in the act2-1 act7-4 background. In summary, it is evident that differences in vegetative actin gene regulation and the diversity in actin isovariant sequences are essential for normal plant development.

Links

PubMed PMC2671709 Online version:10.1105/tpc.108.061960

Keywords

Actins/classification; Actins/genetics; Actins/metabolism; Arabidopsis/anatomy & histology; Arabidopsis/physiology; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics; Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant; Genetic Complementation Test; Molecular Sequence Data; Morphogenesis; Mutation; Phenotype; Phylogeny; Plant Roots/physiology; Plant Roots/ultrastructure; Plants, Genetically Modified; Protein Isoforms/classification; Protein Isoforms/genetics; Protein Isoforms/metabolism; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

ARATH:ACT7

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0010053: root epidermal cell differentiation

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ACT7

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0051301: cell division

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ACT7

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0048767: root hair elongation

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ACT7

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0048364: root development

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ACT2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0048768: root hair cell tip growth

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ACT8

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0048768: root hair cell tip growth

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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