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PMID:19244140

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Citation

Huang, CF, Yamaji, N, Mitani, N, Yano, M, Nagamura, Y and Ma, JF (2009) A bacterial-type ABC transporter is involved in aluminum tolerance in rice. Plant Cell 21:655-67

Abstract

Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major factor limiting crop production in acidic soil, but the molecular mechanisms of Al tolerance are poorly understood. Here, we report that two genes, STAR1 (for sensitive to Al rhizotoxicity1) and STAR2, are responsible for Al tolerance in rice. STAR1 encodes a nucleotide binding domain, while STAR2 encodes a transmembrane domain, of a bacterial-type ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter. Disruption of either gene resulted in hypersensitivity to aluminum toxicity. Both STAR1 and STAR2 are expressed mainly in the roots and are specifically induced by Al exposure. Expression in onion epidermal cells, rice protoplasts, and yeast showed that STAR1 interacts with STAR2 to form a complex that localizes to the vesicle membranes of all root cells, except for those in the epidermal layer of the mature zone. When expressed together in Xenopus laevis oocytes, STAR1/2 shows efflux transport activity specific for UDP-glucose. Furthermore, addition of exogenous UDP-glucose rescued root growth in the star1 mutant exposed to Al. These results indicate that STAR1 and STAR2 form a complex that functions as an ABC transporter, which is required for detoxification of Al in rice. The ABC transporter transports UDP-glucose, which may be used to modify the cell wall.

Links

PubMed PMC2660611 Online version:10.1105/tpc.108.064543

Keywords

ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/chemistry; ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/genetics; ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/physiology; Aluminum/pharmacology; Animals; Binding Sites; Biological Transport/physiology; Green Fluorescent Proteins/analysis; Onions/genetics; Oryza sativa/drug effects; Oryza sativa/genetics; Oryza sativa/metabolism; Phylogeny; Plant Proteins/chemistry; Plant Proteins/genetics; Plant Proteins/physiology; Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/analysis; Xenopus laevis/genetics; Yeasts/genetics

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

ORYSJ:STAR1

enables

GO:0005515: protein binding

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:Q5W7C1

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ORYSJ:STAR1

located_in

GO:0012506: vesicle membrane

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ORYSJ:STAR2

enables

GO:0005515: protein binding

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:Q0D9V6

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ORYSJ:STAR2

located_in

GO:0012506: vesicle membrane

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ORYSJ:STAR1

enables

GO:0005460: UDP-glucose transmembrane transporter activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ORYSJ:STAR1

involved_in

GO:0010044: response to aluminum ion

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ORYSJ:STAR1

part_of

GO:0012506: vesicle membrane

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ORYSJ:STAR1

involved_in

GO:0015786: UDP-glucose transmembrane transport

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ORYSJ:STAR2

enables

GO:0005460: UDP-glucose transmembrane transporter activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ORYSJ:STAR2

involved_in

GO:0010044: response to aluminum ion

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ORYSJ:STAR2

part_of

GO:0012506: vesicle membrane

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ORYSJ:STAR2

involved_in

GO:0015786: UDP-glucose transmembrane transport

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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