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PMID:19168715

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Citation

Ogawa, M, Kay, P, Wilson, S and Swain, SM (2009) ARABIDOPSIS DEHISCENCE ZONE POLYGALACTURONASE1 (ADPG1), ADPG2, and QUARTET2 are Polygalacturonases required for cell separation during reproductive development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 21:216-33

Abstract

Cell separation is thought to involve degradation of pectin by several hydrolytic enzymes, particularly polygalacturonase (PG). Here, we characterize an activation tagging line with reduced growth and male sterility caused by increased expression of a PG encoded by QUARTET2 (QRT2). QRT2 is essential for pollen grain separation and is part of a small family of three closely related endo-PGs in the Arabidopsis thaliana proteome, including ARABIDOPSIS DEHISCENCE ZONE POLYGALACTURONASE1 (ADPG1) and ADPG2. Functional assays and complementation experiments confirm that ADPG1, ADPG2, and QRT2 are PGs. Genetic analysis demonstrates that ADPG1 and ADPG2 are essential for silique dehiscence. In addition, ADPG2 and QRT2 contribute to floral organ abscission, while all three genes contribute to anther dehiscence. Expression analysis is consistent with the observed mutant phenotypes. INDEHISCENT (IND) encodes a putative basic helix-loop-helix required for silique dehiscence, and we demonstrate that the closely related HECATE3 (HEC3) gene is required for normal seed abscission and show that IND and HEC3 are required for normal expression of ADPG1 in the silique dehiscence zone and seed abscission zone, respectively. We also show that jasmonic acid and ethylene act together with abscisic acid to regulate floral organ abscission, in part by promoting QRT2 expression. These results demonstrate that multiple cell separation events, including both abscission and dehiscence, require closely related PG genes.

Links

PubMed PMC2648098 Online version:10.1105/tpc.108.063768

Keywords

Arabidopsis/enzymology; Arabidopsis/genetics; Arabidopsis/growth & development; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics; Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism; Cyclopentanes/metabolism; DNA, Bacterial/genetics; Ethylenes/metabolism; Flowers/cytology; Flowers/enzymology; Flowers/genetics; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant; Genetic Complementation Test; Mutagenesis, Insertional; Mutation; Oxylipins/metabolism; Plant Infertility; Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics; Plants, Genetically Modified/growth & development; Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism; Pollen/cytology; Pollen/enzymology; Pollen/genetics; Polygalacturonase/genetics; Polygalacturonase/metabolism; RNA, Plant/genetics

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

ARATH:ADPG1

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0010047: fruit dehiscence

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ADPG1

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009901: anther dehiscence

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ADPG1

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009830: cell wall modification involved in abscission

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ADPG1

enables

GO:0004650: polygalacturonase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ADPG2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0010227: floral organ abscission

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ADPG2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0010047: fruit dehiscence

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ADPG2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009901: anther dehiscence

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ADPG2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009830: cell wall modification involved in abscission

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ADPG2

enables

GO:0004650: polygalacturonase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:QRT2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0010047: fruit dehiscence

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:QRT2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009901: anther dehiscence

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:QRT2

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009830: cell wall modification involved in abscission

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:QRT2

enables

GO:0004650: polygalacturonase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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