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Chang, EI, Chang, EI, Thangarajah, H, Hamou, C and Gurtner, GC (2007) Hypoxia, hormones, and endothelial progenitor cells in hemangioma. Lymphat Res Biol 5:237-43


Hemangiomas are the most common tumor of infancy, and although the natural history of these lesions is well described, their etiology remains unknown. One current theory attributes the development of hemangiomas to placentally-derived cells; however, conclusive evidence to support a placental origin is lacking. While placental tissue and hemangiomas do share molecular similarities, it is possible that these parallels are the result of analogous responses of endothelial cells and vascular progenitors to similar environmental cues. Specifically, both tissue types consist of actively proliferating cells that exist within a low oxygen, high estrogen environment. The hypoxic environment leads to an upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) responsive chemokines such as stromal cell derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), both of which are known to promote the recruitment and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells. Increased hormone levels in the postpartum period further potentiate the growth of these lesions. In this model, increased stabilization of HIF-1 in concert with increased levels of estrogen create a milieu that promotes new blood vessel development, ultimately contributing to the pathogenesis of infantile hemangiomas.


PubMed Online version:10.1089/lrb.2007.1014


Animals; Anoxia/physiopathology; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology; Endothelial Cells/pathology; Endothelial Cells/physiology; Estrogens/metabolism; Female; Hemangioma; Humans; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Neovascularization, Pathologic; Placenta; Pregnancy; Stem Cells/pathology; Stem Cells/physiology



Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status



GO:0032722: positive regulation of chemokine production

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion


Seeded From UniProt


See also


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