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PMID:17587820

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Citation

Mercado-Pimentel, ME and Runyan, RB (2007) Multiple transforming growth factor-beta isoforms and receptors function during epithelial-mesenchymal cell transformation in the embryonic heart. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) 185:146-56

Abstract

Epithelial-mesenchymal cell transformation (EMT) is a critical process during development of the heart valves. Transition of endothelial cells into mesenchymal cells in the atrioventricular (AV) canal and the outflow tract regions of the heart form the cardiac cushions that eventually form the heart valves. Collagen gel invasion assay has aided in the identification of molecules that regulate EMT. Among those, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) ligands and receptors demonstrate a critical role during EMT. In the chick, TGF-beta ligands and some receptors have specific functions during EMT. TGF-beta2 mediates endothelial cell-cell activation and separation, and TGF-beta3 mediates cell invasion into the extracellular matrix. Receptors involved in the EMT process include TGF-beta receptor type II (TBRII), TBRIII, endoglin and the TBRI receptors, ALK2 and ALK5. In contrast, in the mouse model, TGF-beta2 is the only ligand involved in EMT. The TGF-beta2 null mouse has either increased EMT or a mesenchymal cell proliferation after EMT. However, functional studies of TGF-beta1 in vivo and in vitro showed that TGF-beta1 functions in the EMT of the mouse AV canal. Latent TGF-beta-binding protein (LTBP-1) and endoglin have a role in the EMT process. Therefore, TGF-betas mediate cardiac EMT in both embryonic species. Further studies will reveal the identification of ligand and receptor-specific activities.

Links

PubMed Online version:10.1159/000101315

Keywords

Activin Receptors, Type I/genetics; Activin Receptors, Type I/metabolism; Animals; Chick Embryo; Epithelial Cells/cytology; Mesoderm/cytology; Models, Biological; Myocardium/cytology; Protein Isoforms/genetics; Protein Isoforms/metabolism; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics; Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism; Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

CHICK:TGFB2

involved_in

GO:0007162: negative regulation of cell adhesion

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CHICK:TGFB2

involved_in

GO:0060317: cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CHICK:TGFB2

involved_in

GO:0042118: endothelial cell activation

ECO:0000303: author statement without traceable support used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CHICK:TGFB3

NOT|involved_in

GO:0007162: negative regulation of cell adhesion

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CHICK:TGFB3

involved_in

GO:0060317: cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CHICK:TGFB3

involved_in

GO:0030335: positive regulation of cell migration

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CHICK:TGFR2

NOT|involved_in

GO:0007162: negative regulation of cell adhesion

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CHICK:TGFR2

involved_in

GO:0030335: positive regulation of cell migration

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CHICK:TGFR2

involved_in

GO:0060317: cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CHICK:Q8UUG9

involved_in

GO:0030335: positive regulation of cell migration

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CHICK:Q8UUG9

involved_in

GO:0060317: cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CHICK:Q90998

involved_in

GO:0007162: negative regulation of cell adhesion

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CHICK:Q90998

involved_in

GO:0060317: cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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