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PMID:17239842

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Citation

Vonica, A and Brivanlou, AH (2007) The left-right axis is regulated by the interplay of Coco, Xnr1 and derrière in Xenopus embryos. Dev. Biol. 303:281-94

Abstract

Formation of the left-right axis involves a symmetry-breaking signal originating in the node or its equivalents, which increases TGF-beta signaling on the left side of the embryo and ultimately leads to asymmetric patterning of the viscera. DAN domain proteins are extracellular inhibitors of TGF-beta ligands, and are involved in regulating the left-right axis in chick, mouse and zebrafish. We find that Coco, a Xenopus DAN family member, and two TGF-beta ligands, Xnr1 and derrière, are coexpressed in the posterior paraxial mesoderm at neurula stage. Side-specific protein depletion demonstrated that left-right patterning requires Coco exclusively on the right side, and Xnr1 and derrière exclusively on the left, despite their bilateral expression pattern. In the absence of Coco, the TGF-beta signal is bilateral. Interactions among the three proteins show that derrière is required for normal levels of Xnr1 expression, while Coco directly inhibits both ligands. We conclude that derrière, Xnr1, and Coco define a posttranscriptionally regulated signaling center, which is a necessary link in the signaling chain leading to an increased TGF-beta signal on the left side of the embryo.

Links

PubMed Online version:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.09.039

Keywords

Animals; Blotting, Western; Body Patterning/physiology; DNA Primers; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Immunohistochemistry; Immunoprecipitation; In Situ Hybridization; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism; Oligonucleotides; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Signal Transduction/genetics; Signal Transduction/physiology; Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism; Xenopus/embryology; Xenopus Proteins/metabolism

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

XENLA:DAND5

involved_in

GO:0048339: paraxial mesoderm development

ECO:0000270: expression pattern evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

XENLA:DAND5

enables

GO:0016015: morphogen activity

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

XENLA:DAND5

involved_in

GO:1900146: negative regulation of nodal signaling pathway involved in determination of left/right asymmetry

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

XENLA:DAND5

involved_in

GO:0070986: left/right axis specification

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

XENLA:DAND5

enables

GO:0005515: protein binding

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:Q91619

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

XENLA:DAND5

enables

GO:0005515: protein binding

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:Q9YGV1

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

XENLA:NODAL

involved_in

GO:0048339: paraxial mesoderm development

ECO:0000270: expression pattern evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

XENLA:NODAL

enables

GO:0016015: morphogen activity

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

XENLA:NODAL

enables

GO:0005515: protein binding

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:Q800X4

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

XENLA:GDF3

involved_in

GO:0048339: paraxial mesoderm development

ECO:0000270: expression pattern evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

XENLA:GDF3

involved_in

GO:1900224: positive regulation of nodal signaling pathway involved in determination of lateral mesoderm left/right asymmetry

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

XENLA:GDF3

involved_in

GO:0070986: left/right axis specification

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

XENLA:GDF3

enables

GO:0005515: protein binding

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:Q800X4

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

HUMAN:SMAD2

involved_in

GO:1900224: positive regulation of nodal signaling pathway involved in determination of lateral mesoderm left/right asymmetry

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

See also

References

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