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PMID:12239571

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Citation

Wang, L, Eckmann, CR, Kadyk, LC, Wickens, M and Kimble, J (2002) A regulatory cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 419:312-6

Abstract

Messenger RNA regulation is a critical mode of controlling gene expression. Regulation of mRNA stability and translation is linked to controls of poly(A) tail length. Poly(A) lengthening can stabilize and translationally activate mRNAs, whereas poly(A) removal can trigger degradation and translational repression. Germline granules (for example, polar granules in flies, P granules in worms) are ribonucleoprotein particles implicated in translational control. Here we report that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene gld-2, a regulator of mitosis/meiosis decision and other germline events, encodes the catalytic moiety of a cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that is associated with P granules in early embryos. Importantly, the GLD-2 protein sequence has diverged substantially from that of conventional eukaryotic PAPs, and lacks a recognizable RRM (RNA recognition motif)-like domain. GLD-2 has little PAP activity on its own, but is stimulated in vitro by GLD-3. GLD-3 is also a developmental regulator, and belongs to the Bicaudal-C family of RNA binding proteins. We suggest that GLD-2 is the prototype for a class of regulatory cytoplasmic PAPs that are recruited to specific mRNAs by a binding partner, thereby targeting those mRNAs for polyadenylation and increased expression.

Links

PubMed Online version:10.1038/nature01039

Keywords

Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Caenorhabditis elegans/embryology; Caenorhabditis elegans/enzymology; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/chemistry; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/immunology; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/metabolism; Catalytic Domain; Cloning, Molecular; Cytoplasm/enzymology; Dimerization; Embryo, Nonmammalian/enzymology; Evolution, Molecular; Germ-Line Mutation/genetics; Models, Biological; Models, Molecular; Molecular Sequence Data; Poly A/metabolism; Polyadenylation; Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase/chemistry; Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase/genetics; Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase/immunology; Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase/metabolism; Protein Binding; Protein Structure, Tertiary; RNA, Helminth/genetics; RNA, Helminth/metabolism; RNA, Messenger/genetics; RNA, Messenger/metabolism; RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics; RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology; RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

CAEEL:GLD2

enables

GO:0005515: protein binding

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

WB:WBGene00001597

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD2

located_in

GO:0005737: cytoplasm

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD2

involved_in

GO:0009792: embryo development ending in birth or egg hatching

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

WB:WBRNAi00062928
WB:WBRNAi00062929
WB:WBRNAi00062930
WB:WBRNAi00062931

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD2

involved_in

GO:0006997: nucleus organization

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

WB:WBRNAi00062928
WB:WBRNAi00062929
WB:WBRNAi00062930
WB:WBRNAi00062931

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD2

enables

GO:0004652: polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD2

located_in

GO:0043186: P granule

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD2

involved_in

GO:0051302: regulation of cell division

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

WB:WBRNAi00062928
WB:WBRNAi00062929
WB:WBRNAi00062930
WB:WBRNAi00062931

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD2

part_of

GO:0031379: RNA-directed RNA polymerase complex

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

WB:WBGene00001597

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD2

involved_in

GO:0043631: RNA polyadenylation

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD2

involved_in

GO:0006397: mRNA processing

ECO:0000269: experimental evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD2

involved_in

GO:0006378: mRNA polyadenylation

ECO:0000269: experimental evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD3

enables

GO:0005515: protein binding

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

WB:WBGene00001597

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD3

enables

GO:1990749: polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activator activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD3

part_of

GO:0031379: RNA-directed RNA polymerase complex

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

WB:WBGene00001596

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD3

involved_in

GO:0043631: RNA polyadenylation

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD3

involved_in

GO:0006397: mRNA processing

ECO:0000269: experimental evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:GLD3

involved_in

GO:0006378: mRNA polyadenylation

ECO:0000269: experimental evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

DROME:GLD2A

enables

GO:0004652: polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity

ECO:0000250: sequence similarity evidence used in manual assertion

WB:WBGene00001596

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

DROME:GLD2B

enables

GO:0004652: polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity

ECO:0000250: sequence similarity evidence used in manual assertion

WB:WBGene00001596

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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