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PMID:11834834

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Citation

Hattar, S, Liao, HW, Takao, M, Berson, DM and Yau, KW (2002) Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity. Science 295:1065-70

Abstract

The primary circadian pacemaker, in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the mammalian brain, is photoentrained by light signals from the eyes through the retinohypothalamic tract. Retinal rod and cone cells are not required for photoentrainment. Recent evidence suggests that the entraining photoreceptors are retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that project to the SCN. The visual pigment for this photoreceptor may be melanopsin, an opsin-like protein whose coding messenger RNA is found in a subset of mammalian RGCs. By cloning rat melanopsin and generating specific antibodies, we show that melanopsin is present in cell bodies, dendrites, and proximal axonal segments of a subset of rat RGCs. In mice heterozygous for tau-lacZ targeted to the melanopsin gene locus, beta-galactosidase-positive RGC axons projected to the SCN and other brain nuclei involved in circadian photoentrainment or the pupillary light reflex. Rat RGCs that exhibited intrinsic photosensitivity invariably expressed melanopsin. Hence, melanopsin is most likely the visual pigment of phototransducing RGCs that set the circadian clock and initiate other non-image-forming visual functions.

Links

PubMed PMC2885915 Online version:10.1126/science.1069609

Keywords

Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Axons/chemistry; Biological Clocks; Brain/cytology; Cell Membrane/chemistry; Circadian Rhythm; Cloning, Molecular; Dendrites/chemistry; Fluorescent Antibody Technique; Lac Operon; Light; Mice; Microscopy, Confocal; Molecular Sequence Data; Optic Nerve/cytology; Rats; Retinal Ganglion Cells/chemistry; Retinal Ganglion Cells/physiology; Rod Opsins/analysis; Rod Opsins/chemistry; Rod Opsins/genetics; Rod Opsins/physiology; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/cytology; Visual Pathways/cytology; beta-Galactosidase/analysis

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

RAT:OPN4

located_in

GO:0016021: integral component of membrane

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

RAT:OPN4

part_of

GO:0016021: integral component of membrane

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

RAT:OPN4

involved_in

GO:0007602: phototransduction

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

RAT:OPN4

enables

GO:0008020: G protein-coupled photoreceptor activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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