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PMID:11747821

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Citation

Lee, RY, Hench, J and Ruvkun, G (2001) Regulation of C. elegans DAF-16 and its human ortholog FKHRL1 by the daf-2 insulin-like signaling pathway. Curr. Biol. 11:1950-7

Abstract

C. elegans insulin-like signaling regulates metabolism, development, and life span. This signaling pathway negatively regulates the activity of the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16. daf-16 encodes multiple isoforms that are expressed in distinct tissue types and are probable orthologs of human FKHRL1, FKHR, and AFX. We show that human FKHRL1 can partially replace DAF-16, proving the orthology. In mammalian cells, insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling activate AKT/PKB kinase to negatively regulate the nuclear localization of DAF-16 homologs (reviewed in ). We show that the absence of AKT consensus sites on DAF-16 is sufficient to cause dauer arrest in daf-2(+) animals, proving that daf-16 is the major output of insulin signaling in C. elegans. FKHR, FKRHL1, and AFX may similarly be the major outputs of mammalian insulin signaling. daf-2 insulin signaling, via AKT kinases, negatively regulates DAF-16 by controlling its nuclear localization. Surprisingly, we find that daf-7 TGF-beta signaling also regulates DAF-16 nuclear localization specifically at the time when the animal makes the commitment between diapause and reproductive development. daf-16 function is supported by the combined action of two distinct promoter/enhancer elements, whereas the coding sequences of two major DAF-16 isoforms are interchangeable. Together, these observations suggest that the combined effects of transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of daf-16 transduce insulin-like signals in C. elegans and perhaps more generally.

Links

PubMed

Keywords

Animals; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; DNA-Binding Proteins/physiology; Forkhead Transcription Factors; Gene Expression Regulation/physiology; Humans; Insulin/metabolism; Receptor, Insulin/physiology; Signal Transduction; Transcription Factors/genetics; Transcription Factors/physiology

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

CAEEL:FOXO

located_in

GO:0005634: nucleus

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:FOXO

located_in

GO:0005737: cytoplasm

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:FOXO

involved_in

GO:0008340: determination of adult lifespan

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:FOXO

part_of

GO:0005737: cytoplasm

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:FOXO

part_of

GO:0005634: nucleus

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:FOXO

involved_in

GO:0002119: nematode larval development

ECO:0000315: mutant phenotype evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

CAEEL:FOXO

involved_in

GO:0008286: insulin receptor signaling pathway

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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