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PMID:11181953

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Citation

Pettersson, K and Gustafsson, JA (2001) Role of estrogen receptor beta in estrogen action. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 63:165-92

Abstract

There was a time when the classification of sex hormones was simple. Androgens were male and estrogens female. What remains true today is that in young adults androgen levels are higher in males and estrogen levels higher in females. More recently we have learned that estrogens are necessary in males for regulation of male sexual behavior, maintenance of the skeleton and the cardiovascular system, and for normal function of the testis and prostate. The importance of androgen in females was never in doubt, it is after all the precursor of estrogen as the substrate for aromatase, the enzyme that produces estrogen. In addition, the tissue distribution of androgen receptors suggests that androgens themselves are important in the ovary, uterus, breast, and brain. New information promises to clarify some of the complex issues of the physiological roles of estrogen and the contribution of estrogen to the development of neoplastic diseases in humans. The discovery of the second estrogen receptor, the creation of mutant mice defective in both estrogen receptors and in the aromatase gene, the solution of the structures of the ligand-binding domains of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), the finding of novel routes through which estrogen receptors can modulate transcription, and the identification of a man with a bi-allelic disruptive mutation of the ERalpha gene are but some of the milestones. This review focuses on the mechanistic aspects of signal transduction mediated by ERs and on the physiological consequences of deficiency of estrogen or estrogen receptor in the available mouse models.

Links

PubMed Online version:10.1146/annurev.physiol.63.1.165

Keywords

Animals; Breast/physiology; Estrogen Receptor beta; Estrogens/physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Prostate/physiology; Receptors, Estrogen/physiology

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

HUMAN:ESR2

located_in

GO:0005634: nucleus

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

HUMAN:ESR2

involved_in

GO:0030308: negative regulation of cell growth

ECO:0000303: author statement without traceable support used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

HUMAN:ESR2

enables

GO:0030284: estrogen receptor activity

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

HUMAN:ESR2

involved_in

GO:0030520: intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

HUMAN:ESR2

involved_in

GO:0006355: regulation of transcription, DNA-templated

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

HUMAN:ESR2

part_of

GO:0005634: nucleus

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

HUMAN:ESR2

enables

GO:0005496: steroid binding

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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