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PMID:10715325

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Citation

Fujimoto, SY, Ohta, M, Usui, A, Shinshi, H and Ohme-Takagi, M (2000) Arabidopsis ethylene-responsive element binding factors act as transcriptional activators or repressors of GCC box-mediated gene expression. Plant Cell 12:393-404

Abstract

Ethylene-responsive element binding factors (ERFs) are members of a novel family of transcription factors that are specific to plants. A highly conserved DNA binding domain known as the ERF domain is the unique feature of this protein family. To characterize in detail this family of transcription factors, we isolated Arabidopsis cDNAs encoding five different ERF proteins (AtERF1 to AtERF5) and analyzed their structure, DNA binding preference, transactivation ability, and mRNA expression profiles. The isolated AtERFs were placed into three classes based on amino acid identity within the ERF domain, although all five displayed GCC box-specific binding activity. AtERF1, AtERF2, and AtERF5 functioned as activators of GCC box-dependent transcription in Arabidopsis leaves. By contrast, AtERF3 and AtERF4 acted as repressors that downregulated not only basal transcription levels of a reporter gene but also the transactivation activity of other transcription factors. The AtERF genes were differentially regulated by ethylene and by abiotic stress conditions, such as wounding, cold, high salinity, or drought, via ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2)-dependent or -independent pathways. Cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, also induced marked accumulation of AtERF mRNAs. Thus, we conclude that AtERFs are factors that respond to extracellular signals to modulate GCC box-mediated gene expression positively or negatively.

Links

PubMed PMC139839

Keywords

Amino Acid Sequence; Arabidopsis/drug effects; Arabidopsis/genetics; Base Sequence; Binding Sites; DNA, Complementary/genetics; DNA, Complementary/isolation & purification; DNA, Plant/genetics; DNA, Plant/metabolism; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism; DNA-Binding Proteins/physiology; Ethylenes/pharmacology; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant; Molecular Sequence Data; Mutation; Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology; Plant Proteins; RNA, Messenger/drug effects; RNA, Messenger/genetics; RNA, Messenger/metabolism; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid; Transcription, Genetic

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

ARATH:EF101

located_in

GO:0005634: nucleus

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:EF101

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009873: ethylene-activated signaling pathway

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:EF101

enables

GO:0003700: DNA-binding transcription factor activity

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:EF101

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0045893: positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ERF82

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0010105: negative regulation of ethylene-activated signaling pathway

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ERF78

located_in

GO:0005634: nucleus

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ERF78

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0010105: negative regulation of ethylene-activated signaling pathway

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:EF102

located_in

GO:0005634: nucleus

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:EF102

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009873: ethylene-activated signaling pathway

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ERF95

located_in

GO:0005634: nucleus

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ERF95

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009873: ethylene-activated signaling pathway

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:ERF95

enables

GO:0003700: DNA-binding transcription factor activity

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

ARATH:HMA7

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009873: ethylene-activated signaling pathway

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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