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PMID:10330403

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Citation

Fagotto, F, Jho, E, Zeng, L, Kurth, T, Joos, T, Kaufmann, C and Costantini, F (1999) Domains of axin involved in protein-protein interactions, Wnt pathway inhibition, and intracellular localization. J. Cell Biol. 145:741-56

Abstract

Axin was identified as a regulator of embryonic axis induction in vertebrates that inhibits the Wnt signal transduction pathway. Epistasis experiments in frog embryos indicated that Axin functioned downstream of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) and upstream of beta-catenin, and subsequent studies showed that Axin is part of a complex including these two proteins and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Here, we examine the role of different Axin domains in the effects on axis formation and beta-catenin levels. We find that the regulators of G-protein signaling domain (major APC-binding site) and GSK3beta-binding site are required, whereas the COOH-terminal sequences, including a protein phosphatase 2A binding site and the DIX domain, are not essential. Some forms of Axin lacking the beta-catenin binding site can still interact indirectly with beta-catenin and regulate beta-catenin levels and axis formation. Thus in normal embryonic cells, interaction with APC and GSK3beta is critical for the ability of Axin to regulate signaling via beta-catenin. Myc-tagged Axin is localized in a characteristic pattern of intracellular spots as well as at the plasma membrane. NH2-terminal sequences were required for targeting to either of these sites, whereas COOH-terminal sequences increased localization at the spots. Coexpression of hemagglutinin-tagged Dishevelled (Dsh) revealed strong colocalization with Axin, suggesting that Dsh can interact with the Axin/APC/GSK3/beta-catenin complex, and may thus modulate its activity.

Links

PubMed PMC2133179

Keywords

Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; Animals; Axin Protein; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism; Cell Line; Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism; Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3; Glycogen Synthase Kinases; Humans; Intracellular Fluid/metabolism; Mutagenesis; Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism; Phosphoproteins/metabolism; Phosphorylation; Proteins/chemistry; Proteins/metabolism; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism; Repressor Proteins; Structure-Activity Relationship; Trans-Activators; Wnt Proteins; Xenopus/embryology; Xenopus Proteins; Zebrafish Proteins; beta Catenin

Significance

Annotations

Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status

MOUSE:AXIN1

located_in

GO:0005737: cytoplasm

ECO:0000266: sequence orthology evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:Q9YGY0

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:AXIN1

located_in

GO:0005886: plasma membrane

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:AXIN1

located_in

GO:0005938: cell cortex

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:DVL2

located_in

GO:0005737: cytoplasm

ECO:0000266: sequence orthology evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:P51142

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:DVL2

located_in

GO:0005938: cell cortex

ECO:0000266: sequence orthology evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:P51142

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:AXIN1

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0051248: negative regulation of protein metabolic process

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:AXIN1

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0009950: dorsal/ventral axis specification

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:AXIN1

part_of

GO:0005938: cell cortex

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:AXIN1

part_of

GO:0005886: plasma membrane

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:AXIN1

part_of

GO:0005737: cytoplasm

ECO:0000266: sequence orthology evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:Q9YGY0

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:AXIN1

acts_upstream_of_or_within

GO:0001934: positive regulation of protein phosphorylation

ECO:0000314: direct assay evidence used in manual assertion

P

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:AXIN1

enables

GO:0008013: beta-catenin binding

ECO:0000353: physical interaction evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:P35222

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:CTNB1

enables

GO:0045296: cadherin binding

ECO:0000266: sequence orthology evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:A1A5I6

F

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:DVL2

part_of

GO:0005938: cell cortex

ECO:0000266: sequence orthology evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:P51142

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete

MOUSE:DVL2

part_of

GO:0005737: cytoplasm

ECO:0000266: sequence orthology evidence used in manual assertion

UniProtKB:P51142

C

Seeded From UniProt

complete


See also

References

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