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Hayashi, T, Motulsky, AG and Deeb, SS (1999) Position of a 'green-red' hybrid gene in the visual pigment array determines colour-vision phenotype. Nat. Genet. 22:90-3


The X-linked red- and green-pigment genes are arranged in a head-to-tail tandem array. The colour-vision defect of deuteranomaly (in 5% of males of European descent) is associated with a 5'-green-red-3' visual-pigment hybrid gene, which may also exist in males with normal colour vision. To explain why males with a normal red, a normal green and a green-red hybrid gene may have either normal or deutan colour vision, we hypothesized that only the first two genes are expressed and deuteranomaly results only if the green-red hybrid gene occupies the second position and is expressed preferentially over normal green-pigment genes occupying more distal positions. We used long-range PCR amplification and studied 10 deutan males (8 deuteranomalous and 2 deuteranopic) with 3 visual pigment genes (red, green and green-red hybrid) to investigate whether position of the hybrid gene in the array determined gene expression. The green-red hybrid gene was always at the second position (and the first position was always occupied by the red gene). Conversely, in two men with red, green and green-red hybrid genes and normal colour vision, the hybrid gene occupied the third position. When pigment gene mRNA expression was assessed in post-mortem retinae of three men with the red, green and green-red genotype, the green-red hybrid gene was expressed only when located in the second position. We conclude that the green-red hybrid gene will only cause deutan defects when it occupies the second position of the pigment gene array.


PubMed Online version:10.1038/8798


Color Perception/genetics; Color Vision Defects/genetics; DNA/chemistry; DNA/genetics; Eye Proteins/genetics; Genes/genetics; Humans; Male; Molecular Sequence Data; Phenotype; Retinal Pigments/genetics; Rod Opsins; Sequence Analysis, DNA



Gene product Qualifier GO Term Evidence Code with/from Aspect Extension Notes Status



GO:0007601: visual perception

ECO:0000304: author statement supported by traceable reference used in manual assertion


Seeded From UniProt


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