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Prongay, AJ, Engelke, DR and Williams, CH Jr (1989) Characterization of two active site mutations of thioredoxin reductase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 264:2656-64


Thioredoxin reductase (TRR), a member of the pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family of flavoenzymes, undergoes two sequential thiol-disulfide interchange reactions with thioredoxin during catalysis. In order to assess the catalytic role of each nascent thiol of the active site disulfide of thioredoxin reductase, the 2 cysteines (Cys-136 and Cys-139) forming this disulfide have been individually changed to serines by site-directed mutageneses of the cloned trxB gene of Escherichia coli. Spectral analyses of TRR(Ser-136,Cys-139) as a function of pH and ionic strength have revealed two pKa values associated with the epsilon 456, one of which increases from 7.0 to 8.3 as the ionic strength is increased, and a second at 4.4 which is seen only at high ionic strength. epsilon 458 of wild type TRR(Cys-136,Cys-139) and epsilon 453 of TRR(Cys-136,Ser-139) are pH-independent. A charge transfer complex (epsilon 530 = 1300 M-1 cm-1), unique to TRR(Ser-136,Cys-139), has been observed under conditions of high ammonium cation concentration (apparent Kd = 54 microM) at pH 7.6. These results suggest the assignment of Cys-139 as the FAD-interacting thiol in the reduction of thioredoxin by NADPH via thioredoxin reductase. If, as with other members of this enzyme family, the two distinct catalytic functions are each carried out by a different nascent thiol, then Cys-136 would perform the initial thiol-disulfide interchange with thioredoxin. Steady state kinetic analyses of the proteins have revealed turnover numbers of 10 and 50% of the value of the wild type enzyme for TRR(Ser-136,Cys-139) and TRR(Cys-136,Ser-139), respectively, and no changes in the apparent Km values of TR(S2) or NADPH. The finding of activity in the mutants indicates that the remaining thiol can carry out interchange with the disulfide of thioredoxin, and the resulting mixed disulfide can be reduced by NADPH via the flavin.




Amino Acid Sequence; Binding Sites; Cloning, Molecular; Escherichia coli/enzymology; Escherichia coli/genetics; Kinetics; Molecular Sequence Data; Mutation; NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases/metabolism; Plasmids; Spectrometry, Fluorescence; Spectrophotometry; Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase/genetics; Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase/metabolism