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Soreq, H and Seidman, S (2001) Acetylcholinesterase--new roles for an old actor. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2:294-302
The discovery of the first neurotransmitter--acetylcholine--was soon followed by the discovery of its hydrolysing enzyme, acetylcholinesterase. The role of acetylcholinesterase in terminating acetylcholine-mediated neurotransmission made it the focus of intense research for much of the past century. But the complexity of acetylcholinesterase gene regulation and recent evidence for some of the long-suspected 'non-classical' actions of this enzyme have more recently driven a profound revolution in acetylcholinesterase research. Although our understanding of the additional roles of acetylcholinesterase is incomplete, the time is ripe to summarize the evidence on a remarkable diversity of acetylcholinesterase functions.
Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry; Acetylcholinesterase/genetics; Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism; Alternative Splicing/genetics; Animals; Cell Adhesion; Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology; Dopamine/metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic; Hematopoiesis; Humans; Multienzyme Complexes/chemistry; Multienzyme Complexes/genetics; Multienzyme Complexes/metabolism; Mutation/genetics; Neurodegenerative Diseases/enzymology; Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics; Neurons/enzymology; Neurons/metabolism; Persian Gulf Syndrome/enzymology; Phenotype; Plaque, Amyloid/metabolism; Protein Transport; Stress, Physiological/enzymology; Synapses/enzymology; Synapses/metabolism