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Zhang, H, Zhang, L, Gao, B, Fan, H, Jin, J, Botella, MA, Jiang, L and Lin, J (2011) Golgi apparatus-localized synaptotagmin 2 is required for unconventional secretion in Arabidopsis. PLoS ONE 6:e26477
Most secretory proteins contain signal peptides that direct their sorting to the ER and secreted via the conventional ER/Golgi transport pathway, while some signal-peptide-lacking proteins have been shown to export through ER/Golgi independent secretory pathways. Hygromycin B is an aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus that is active against both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The hygromycin phosphotransferase (HYG(R)) can phosphorylate and inactivate the hygromycin B, and has been widely used as a positive selective marker in the construction of transgenic plants. However, the localization and trafficking of HYG(R) in plant cells remain unknown. Synaptotagmins (SYTs) are involved in controlling vesicle endocytosis and exocytosis as calcium sensors in animal cells, while their functions in plant cells are largely unclear.
Amino Acid Sequence; Arabidopsis/drug effects; Arabidopsis/genetics; Arabidopsis/metabolism; Arabidopsis/ultrastructure; Arabidopsis Proteins/chemistry; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics; Arabidopsis Proteins/secretion; Brefeldin A/pharmacology; Cell Compartmentation/drug effects; Genes, Plant/genetics; Golgi Apparatus/drug effects; Golgi Apparatus/metabolism; Golgi Apparatus/ultrastructure; Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism; Hygromycin B/pharmacology; Models, Biological; Molecular Sequence Data; Mutation/genetics; Protein Transport/drug effects; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism; Secretory Pathway/drug effects; Subcellular Fractions/drug effects; Subcellular Fractions/metabolism; Synaptotagmin II/chemistry; Synaptotagmin II/genetics; Synaptotagmin II/secretion; Up-Regulation/drug effects