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Nakaya, N, Hemish, J, Krasnov, P, Kim, SY, Stasiv, Y, Michurina, T, Herman, D, Davidoff, MS, Middendorff, R and Enikolopov, G (2007) noxin, a novel stress-induced gene involved in cell cycle and apoptosis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 27:5430-44
We describe a novel stress-induced gene, noxin, and a knockout mouse line with an inactivated noxin gene. The noxin gene does not have sequelogs in the genome and encodes a highly serine-rich protein with predicted phosphorylation sites for ATM, Akt, and DNA-dependent protein kinase kinases; nuclear localization signals; and a Zn finger domain. noxin mRNA and protein levels are under tight control by the cell cycle. noxin, identified as a nitric oxide-inducible gene, is strongly induced by a wide range of stress signals: gamma- and UV irradiation, hydrogen peroxide, adriamycin, and cytokines. This induction is dependent on p53. Noxin accumulates in the nucleus in response to stress and, when ectopically expressed, Noxin arrests the cell cycle at G1; although it also induces p53, the cell cycle arrest function of Noxin is independent of p53 activity. noxin knockout mice are viable and fertile; however, they have an enlarged heart, several altered hematopoietic parameters, and a decreased number of spermatids. Importantly, loss or downregulation of Noxin leads to increased cell death. Our results suggest that Noxin may be a component of the cell defense system: it is activated by various stress stimuli, helps cells to withdraw from cycling, and opposes apoptosis.
Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Apoptosis/drug effects; Carrier Proteins/chemistry; Carrier Proteins/genetics; Carrier Proteins/metabolism; Cell Cycle/drug effects; Cloning, Molecular; Down-Regulation/drug effects; Fibroblasts/drug effects; Fibroblasts/metabolism; Gene Expression Profiling; Gene Targeting; Mice; Mice, Knockout; Molecular Sequence Data; NIH 3T3 Cells; Nitric Oxide/pharmacology; Organ Size/drug effects; Phenotype; Phosphoproteins/chemistry; Phosphoproteins/genetics; Phosphoproteins/metabolism; RNA, Messenger/genetics; RNA, Messenger/metabolism; S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine/pharmacology; Subcellular Fractions/metabolism; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics