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Wu, Y, Lu, H, Yang, H, Li, C, Sang, Q, Liu, X, Liu, Y, Wang, Y and Sun, Z (2016) Zinc stimulates glucose consumption by modulating the insulin signaling pathway in L6 myotubes: essential roles of Akt-GLUT4, GSK3β and mTOR-S6K1. J. Nutr. Biochem. 34:126-35
The present study was performed to evaluate the insulin-like effects of zinc in normal L6 myotubes as well as its ability to alleviate insulin resistance. Glucose consumption was measured in both normal and insulin-resistant L6 myotubes. Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed that zinc exhibited insulin-like glucose transporting effects by activating key markers that are involved in the insulin signaling cascade (including Akt, GLUT4 and GSK3β), and downregulating members of the insulin signaling feedback cascade such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1). In normal L6 myotubes, zinc enhanced glucose consumption via a mechanism that might involve the activation of Akt phosphorylation, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and GSK3β phosphorylation. In contrast, zinc exerted insulin-mimetic effects in insulin-resistant L6 myotubes by upregulating Akt phosphorylation, GLUT4 translocation and GSK3β phosphorylation, and downregulating the expression of mTOR and S6K1. In conclusion, zinc might enhance glucose consumption by modulating insulin signaling pathways including Akt-GLUT4, GSK3β, mTOR and S6K1.
Absorption, Physiological; Animals; Biomarkers/metabolism; Cell Line; Dietary Supplements; Enzyme Activation; Glucose/metabolism; Glucose Transporter Type 4/agonists; Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism; Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/chemistry; Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism; Insulin Resistance; Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/cytology; Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/enzymology; Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/metabolism; Phosphorylation; Protein Processing, Post-Translational; Protein Transport; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/agonists; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism; Rats; Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors; Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases/metabolism; Signal Transduction; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism; Zinc/metabolism